generals want? Egypt
The January 2011 revolution challenged that 1954 status quo in many ways.
The revolutionaries did clash with a 21st Century junta: the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (Scaf).
After the removal of Mubarak in February 2011, the Scaf had a minimum of three demands it insisted on: a veto in high politics, independence for the army's budget and economic empire, and legal immunity from prosecution on charges stemming from corruption or repression.
generals fear? Egypt
One way to maintain internal cohesion is to create "demons" - a lesson learned from the "dirty wars" in
in the 1990s and Argentina
in the 1970s and 1980s.
The July coup is a backward step for democratic civilian-military relations
Even more worrying are its regional implications.
The message sent by the coup to
and beyond is that of militarising politics: only arms guarantee political rights,
not the constitution, not democratic institutions and certainly not votes.
In the end, what remains certain is that no democratic transition is complete without targeting abuse, eradicating torture, ending exclusion, and annulling the impunity of security services, with effective and meaningful civilian control of both the armed forces and the security establishment.